Kano model

July 2, 2014

The Kano model is a method to assess the value of product features. It is based on two questions about a feature (after demonstrating and explaining it): How would you feel if this feature was present? And: How would you feel if this feature was not provided? Answers to the two questions are to be categorised as follows:

  1. I like it (Delighted)
  2. I expect it (Satisfied)
  3. I’m neutral (Neutral)
  4. I can tolerate it (Disappointed)
  5. I dislike it (Dissatisfied)

Squaring the two answers to a feature will identify the type (and the value) of a feature:

  • Attractive
  • One Dimensional
  • Must Have
  • Unimportant
  • Undesired

After this categorisation exercise, further analysis can be carried out, e.g. filtering rsults by persona type (First adopters, late adopters, non adopters). Additional insight can be derived from a third question, in which the user rates the importance of a feature on a Likert scale from 1 (Not at all important) to 9 (Extremely important).

More about how to design and carry out a Kano study in UX magazine

Measuring performance (e.g. task success rate) and satisfaction (e.g. ‘liking a Website’)

June 9, 2014

• Performance and satisfaction scores are strongly correlated, so if you make a design that’s easier to use, people will tend to like it more.

• Performance and satisfaction are different usability metrics, so you should consider both in the design process and measure both if you conduct quantitative usability studies.

JAKOB NIELSEN: User Satisfaction vs. Performance Metrics

User experience metrics

June 9, 2014

Most metrics are marketing oriented, not experience oriented. Unique visitors can tell you whether your marketing campaign worked and social mentions can tell you whether you’ve got a great headline, but these metrics do not reveal much about the experience people have had using a site or application.


User experience is about more than just ease of use, of course. It is about motivations, attitudes, expectations, behavioral patterns, and constraints. It is about the types of interactions people have, how they feel about an experience, and what actions they expect to take. User experience also comprehends more than just the few moments of a single site visit or one-time use of an application; it is about the cross-channel user journey, too. This is new territory for UX metrics. – See more at: http://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2014/06/choosing-the-right-metrics-for-user-experience.php#sthash.zmdVOE0q.dpuf

Three categories of UX metrics: Usability; Engagement, and Conversion

    Usability metrics focus on how easily people can accomplish what they’ve set out to do. This category of metrics includes all of the usability metrics that some UX teams are already tracking—such as time on task, task success rate, and an ease-of-use rating. It may also include more granular metrics such as icon recognition or searching versus navigating. Plus, it could include interaction patterns or event streams that show confusion, frustration, or hesitation.

  • Time on task
  • Task success
  • Confusion moment
  • Perceived success
  • Cue recognition
  • Menu/navigation use
    Engagement is the holy grail for many sites and is a notoriously ambiguous category of metrics. But UX teams could make a real contribution to understanding how much people interact with a site or application, how much attention they give to it, how much time they spend in a flow state, and how good they feel about it. Time might still be a factor in engagement metrics, but in combination with other metrics like pageviews, scrolling at certain intervals, or an event stream. Because this metric is tricky to read, it yields better results in combination with qualitative insights.

  • Attention minutes
  • Happiness rating
  • Flow state
  • Total time reading
  • First impression
  • Categories explored
    Conversion is the metric that everyone cares about most, But its use can mean focusing on a small percentage of users who are ready to commit at the expense of other people who are just becoming aware of your site or thinking about increasing their engagement with it. You can use UX metrics to design solutions for these secondary scenarios, too—for example, by looking at users’ likelihood of taking action on micro-conversions, in addition to considering conversion rate and Net Promoter Score (NPS).

    The metrics in this category can help us to spot trends and get past the So what? question that applies to all data. The big metrics give us the big picture, showing how a site or application changes over time and how it lives in the world or the broader context of other experiences.

  • Micro-conversion count
  • Brand attribute
  • Conversion rate
  • Likelihood to recommend, or NPS
  • Trust rating
  • Likelihood to take action

Pamela Pavliscak: Choosing the Right Metrics for User Experience

4 seconds to assess a website

May 16, 2014

“Research over the past decade has shown a consistent fall in the time people take to assess whether or not a website is for them. In the early days of eCommerce it was about 20 seconds; now it’s less than four.”

Graham Jones in WIRED UK 5/2014 ‘Instant gratification has us hooked on rewards’

Email Subject Lines

May 5, 2014
  1. Include content in the subject line.
  2. Front-load the subject line with keywords and limit it to 40 characters.
  3. Don’t repeat sender information in the subject line.
  4. Avoid using recipients’ names in the subject line.
  5. Be cautious with symbols and special characters.<
  6. /ol>

    Nielsen/Norman Group

5 domains of personality

April 13, 2014

Of the very large array of personality traits researched by psychologists, most can be divided into five broad domains:

  1. Extroversion versus introversion
  2. Antagonism versus agreeableness
  3. Conscientiousness
  4. Neuroticism
  5. Openness to experience

Wilson 2013, p.101

Types of impairments

April 10, 2014
  • Visual impairment – assistive technologies such as screen reading software and screen magnifiers are the most common tools for this audience. Screen readers work effectively only if there are text alternatives to imagery, charts and animation, and the page has been properly coded using structural mark-up. Screen magnifiers also rely on well-structured page design.
  • Hearing impairment – these users rely on text captioning to understand videos or audio files.
  • Motor impairments – people with limited muscle control often find the mouse or keyboard difficult to use. These users often use speech recognition systems that allow them to speak commands to their computer.
  • Cognitive disability – people with reading difficulties, such as dyslexia, and limited mental agility need web pages that are written in straightforward language and are easy to scan. Following these principles and best practice provides benefits for everyone who uses the website.
  • Selective disturbance – people prone to epileptic seizures, and those with visual impairments, may be disturbed by flickering and flashing text or images.

Usability metrics

April 6, 2014

A website’s usability is determined by the following factors:

  • Efficiency: the speed that users can complete their tasks
  • Effectiveness: the completeness and accuracy with which users achieve their goals
  • Engagement: how satisfied the user is with their experience

ISO 9241

Examples style guides and pattern libraries

April 2, 2014

Web Responsive

Web Non Responsive



The Six Components Of Web Forms

April 2, 2014

Web forms are a necessity and often a pain point for both designers and users. Over time, users have formed expectations of how a form should look and behave. They typically expect Web forms to have the following six components:

  1. Labels – These tell users what the corresponding input fields mean.
  2. Input Fields – Input fields enable users to provide feedback. They include text fields, password fields, check boxes, radio buttons, sliders and more.
  3. Actions – These are links or buttons that, when pressed by the user, perform an action, such as submitting the form.
  4. Help – This provides assistance on how to fill out the form.
  5. Messages – Messages give feedback to the user based on their input. They can be positive (such as indicating that the form was submitted successfully) or negative (“The user name you have selected is already taken”).
  6. Validation – These measures ensure that the data submitted by the user conforms to acceptable parameters.

Justin Mifsud: An extensive guide to Web form usability


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