- Involving users in the design process helps with expectation
management and feelings ownership, but how and when to involve
users is a matter of dispute.
- Putting a user-centered approach into practice requires much
information about the users to be gathered and interpreted.
- Ethnography is a good method for studying users in their natural
- Representing the information gleaned from an ethnographic study
so that it can be used in design has been problematic
- The goals of ethnography are to study the details, while the
goals of system design are to produce abstractions; hence they
are not immediately compatible.
- Coherence is a method that provides focus questions to help guide
the ethnographer towards issues that have proved to be important
in systems development.
- Contextual Design is a method that provides models and techniques
for gathering contextual data and representing it in a form
suitable for practical design.
- PICTIVE and CARD (collaborative analysis of requirements and
design) are both participatory design techniques that empower
users to take an active part in design decisions.
From: Preece, J., Rogers, Y., Sharp, H. (2002), Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction, New York: Wiley, p. 312