Use scenarios

Scenarios can help uncover gaps in solutions and potential usability issues.


  • What prompted the persona to embark on the scenario


  • Where is the persona while the scenario takes place?
  • Does the context change over the course of the scenario?
  • Who else is involved?
  • What other devices are involved?


  • What kinds of distractions or interruptions typically occur in the scenario?
  • How does the persona deal with such distractions?


  • What is the persona’s goal in the scenario?
  • Is it information, an artifact, an emotion?

Ginsburg 2011: P.82

Gestures in iOS

  • Tap – To select a control or item (analogous to single mouse click)
  • Drag – To scroll or pan (controlled; any direction; slow speed)
  • Flick – To scroll or pan quickly (less controlled; directional; faster speed
  • Swipe – Used in a table-view row to reveal the Delete button
  • Double Tap – To zoom in and center a block of content or an image; To zoom out (if already zoomed in)
  • Pinch Open – To zoom in
  • Pinch Close – To zoom out
  • Touch and Hold – In editable text, to display a magnified view for cursor positioning; also used to cut/copy/paste, and select text.

Ginsburg 2011, p.22

Empathy Map

What does she think and feel?

  • What really counts
  • major preoccupations
  • worries & aspirations

What does she see?

  • environment
  • friends
  • what the market offers

What does she say and do?

  • attitude in public
  • appearance
  • behaviour toward others

What does she hear?

  • what friends say
  • what boss says
  • what influencers say



  • fears
  • frustrations
  • obstacles


  • wants/needs
  • measures of success

Based on a tool developed by XPLANE; described in: Osterwalder, A. & Pigneur, Y.: Business Model Generation; Hoboken, NJ:2010. pages 130

Customer-centric business model design

  • What job)s) do(es) our customer need to get done and how can we help? What are our customer’s aspiratins and how can ewe help him live up to them?
  • How do our customers prefer to be addressed? How do we, as an enterprise best fit into their routines?
  • What relationship do our customers expect us to establish with them?
  • For what value(s) are customers truly willing to pay?

Osterwalder, A. & Pigneur, Y.: Business Model Generation; Hoboken, NJ:2010. pages 129

Business Model Strawman

The 9 building blocks of a business model

  • Customer segments – An organisation serves one or several customer segments
  • Value Propositions – It seeks to solve customer problems and satisfy customer needs with value propositions
  • Channels – Value propostions are delivered to customers through communication, distribution, and sales Channels
  • Customer Relationships – Customer erlationshipsare established and maintained with each Customer Sefgment
  • Revenue Streams – Revenue Streams result from value propositions successfully offered to customers.
  • Key resources – Key resources are the assets required to offer and deliver the previously described elements …
  • Key Activities – … by performing a number of key activities
  • Key Partnerships – Some activities are outsourced and some resources are acquired outside the enterprise
  • Cost Structure – The business modelel ements result in the cost structure

Osterwalder, A. & Pigneur, Y.: Business Model Generation; Hoboken, NJ:2010. pages 16/17

For printable canvas to be used in WS etc. see

CCIR brand personality metric

Centre for Communication Interface Research (CCIR) is part of the School of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh

CCIR’s brand personality metric uses a proven questionnaire based on an extensive study of the salient attributes of brand personality from published academic and business literature and from previous experiment work in the area. The brand personality attributes assessed in CCIR’s metrics focus on customers’ organic perceptions and attitudes to new processes experienced in an experiment setting, addressing perceptions of brand personality for 24 attributes:

  • Modernity attributes: a brand that is forward thinking, modern, imaginative and stylish.
  • Enthusiasm attributes: a brand which appears confident and enthusiastic.
  • Personal attributes: a brand that is conscientious, welcoming, cheerful, caring, friendly, helpful, approachable, patient, sincere and genuine.
  • Competency attributes: a brand that is dependable, professional, consistent, meticulous, efficient, competent, trustworthy and security conscious.

Sales funnel

Specific steps or stages in a sales process vary from company to company but generally include the following elements:

  1. Initial contact
  2. Application of Initial Fit Criteria
  3. Sales lead
  4. Need identification
  5. Qualified prospect
  6. Proposal
  7. Negotiation
  8. Closing
  9. Deal Transaction

An alternate but similar series of steps is as follows:

  1. Prospecting/Initial contact
  2. Preapproach- planning the sale
  3. Approach
  4. Need assessment
  5. Presentation
  6. Meeting objections
  7. Gaining commitment
  8. Follow-up