A Circumplex Model of Affect

July 4, 2016

By James A. Russell (PDF)

Evidence suggests that relationship between affective states can be represented by a spatial model in which affective concepts fall in a circle in the following order: pleasure (0°), excitement (45°), arousal (90°), distress (135°), displeasure (180°), depression (225°), sleepiness (270°), relaxation (315°)

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