Five types of customer value

  • Functional value
  • Social value
  • Emotional value
  • Epistemic value – generated by the desire to learn
  • Conditional value – benefit that depends on specific situations or context

Sheth, Newman and Gross (Consumption values and market choices) quoted in Kalbach, J., Mapping Experiences, Sebastopol 2016, p. 35

KANO model – questions to ask

In order to uncover our customer’s perceptions towards our product’s attributes, we need to use the Kano questionnaire. It consists of a pair of questions for each feature we want to evaluate:

One asks our customers how they feel if they have the feature;
The other asks how they feel if they did not have the feature.

The first question is called the functional form and the second one is the dysfunctional form (they’re also called positive and negative by Jan Moorman.) These are not open-ended questions, though. There are very specific options we should use. To each “how do you feel if you had / did not have this feature”, the possible answers are:

I like it
I expect it
I am neutral
I can tolerate it
I dislike it


How can I be more strategic at work?

When designing, start with a concept.
Concepts are simple metaphors we can use to help people understand how a system will work, before getting too attached to the details.

Prototype the most radical idea first.
As Jason Fried said: “When prototyping, always try wackier/quirkier stuff first. The deeper you get into a project, the more conservative it tends to get. Stranger ideas are more at home earlier in the process.”

Advocate for less. Or as Julie Zhuo states: prioritize and cut.
“When the discussion becomes ‘should we ship this mediocre thing, or should we spend additional time that we don’t have to make it better?’ the battle has already been lost. The thing we failed to do weeks or months ago was cutting aggressively enough. Either this thing matters, in which case make it great — don’t make it mediocre. Or it doesn’t, in which case, don’t work on it in the first place.”

Practice zooming in and zooming out of your designs
Force your brain to be idle; test your design in a different screen (print them out!); share your design earlier and often, talk aloud about it; write a summary of your idea; write the case study while you work on it. It’s all about creating the habit.

Be patient.
We like intensity. We love things that are fixed in time and easily measured. But only by staying with it for the long-run will the vision be delivered. Consistency, patience, and hard work are the keys to good design (and any other work, really).

From UX trends

Designing the opportunity

1. At the top of the product design process, you have the surface-level work of designing the interface — the visible manifestation of the design process in layouts, colors, styles, and interactions. Organizations that only focus on the top layer won’t succeed because the underlying structure, function, and features haven’t been considered thoughtfully and systematically.

2. More success comes when you dig to the middle layer — designing the experience. This means applying design thinking to understanding the problem, goals, and users, and then designing the right set of features and product architecture to meet those needs. There are plenty of products that do reasonably well by only addressing the top two layers.

3. But the products and companies that have true success, the ones we look to as revolutionary, are the companies that go one level deeper and apply design innovation. I think of this layer as designing the opportunity.

Designing the opportunity means understanding the system itself, the people who use it, and the external landscape in which that system exists. By comprehensively looking at all three of these factors, one can start to identify hidden opportunities and gaps.

Alexis Lloyd: Designing the opportunity: the deep layer of product design