Focus state

I always recommend that if content changes on mouse hover, the same should occur on keyboard focus. In almost all cases you need to add “a:focus” wherever you have “a:hover” to achieve this.

Gian Wild in https://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/

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Behavioral insights

EAST framework

  • E-asy
    • Harness the power of defaults. – We have a strong tendency to go with the default or pre-set option, since it is easy to do so. Making an option the default makes it more likely to be adopted.
    • Reduce the ‘hassle factor’ of taking up a service.- The effort required to perform an action often puts people off. Reducing the effort required can increase uptake or response rates.
    • Simplify messages – Making the message clear often results in a significant increase in response rates to communications. In particular, it’s useful to identify how a complex goal can be broken down into simpler, easier actions.
  • A-ttractive
    • Attract attention. – We are more likely to do something that our attention is drawn towards. Ways of doing this include the use of images, colour or personalisation.
    • Design rewards and sanctions for maximum effect. – Financial incentives are often highly effective, but alternative incentive designs — such as lotteries — also work well and often cost less
  • S-ocial
    • Show that most people perform the desired behaviour. – Describing what most people do in a particular situation encourages others to do the same. Similarly, policy makers should be wary of inadvertently reinforcing a problematic behaviour by emphasising its high prevalence.
    • Use the power of networks. – We are embedded in a network of social relationships, and those we come into contact with shape our actions. Governments can foster networks to enable collective action, provide mutual support, and encourage behaviours to spread peer-to-peer.
    • Encourage people to make a commitment to others. – We often use commitment devices to voluntarily ‘lock ourselves’ into doing something in advance. The social nature of these commitments is often crucial.
  • T-imely
    • Prompt people when they are likely to be most receptive. – The same offer made at different times can have drastically different levels of success. Behaviour is generally easier to change when habits are already disrupted, such as around major life events.
    • Consider the immediate costs and benefits. – We are more influenced by costs and benefits that take effect immediately than those delivered later. Policy makers should consider whether the immediate costs or benefits can be adjusted (even slightly), given that they are so influential.
    • Help people plan their response to events. – There is a substantial gap between intentions and actual behaviour. A proven solution is to prompt people to identify the barriers to action, and develop a specific plan to address them.
The EAST framework is at the heart of this methodology, but it cannot be applied in isolation from a good understanding of the nature and context of the problem. Therefore, we have developed a fuller method for developing projects, which has four main stages:
  1. Define the outcome – Identify exactly what behaviour is to be influenced. Consider how this can be measured reliably and efficiently. Establish how large a change would make the project worthwhile, and over what time period.
  2. Understand the context – Visit the situations and people involved in the behaviour, and understand the context from their perspective. Use this opportunity to develop new insights and design a sensitive and feasible intervention.
  3. Build your intervention – Use the EAST framework to generate your behavioural insights. This is likely to be an iterative process that returns to the two steps above.
  4. Test, learn, adapt – Put your intervention into practice so its effects can be reliably measured. Wherever possible, BIT attempts to use randomised controlled trials to evaluate its interventions. These introduce a control group so you can understand what would have happened if you had done nothing.

 

Smart

S-pecific

M-easurable

A-ssignable

R-ealistic

T-ime-based

The 7 Ps for preparing a workshop

Think about …
Purpose: Why are you having this meeting? As the leader, you need to be able to state this clearly and succinctly. Consider the urgency of the meeting: what’s going
on, and what’s on fire? If this is difficult to articulate, ask yourself if a meeting is really necessary.
Product: What specific artifact will we produce out of the meeting? What will it do, and how will it support the purpose? If your meetings seem to be “all talk and no follow-through,” consider how a product might change things.
People: Who needs to be there, and what role will they play? One way to focus your list of attendees is to think in terms of questions and answers. What questions are
we answering with this meeting? Who are the right people to answer the questions?
Process: What agenda will these people use to create the product? Of all the 7Ps, the agenda is where you have the most opportunity to collaborate in advance with the
attendees. Co-design an agenda with them to ensure that they will show up and stay engaged.
Pitfalls: What are the risks in this meeting, and how will we address them? These could be as simple as ground rules, such as “no laptops,” or specific topics that are
designated as out of scope.
Prep: What would be useful to do in advance? This could be material to read in advance, research to conduct, or “homework” to assign to the attendees.
Practical Concerns: These are the logistics of the meeting—the where and when, and importantly, who’s bringing lunch.

Strategy
  • Each of the 7Ps can influence or change one of the others, and developing a good plan will take this into account. For instance, if you have certain participants for only part of a meeting, this will change your process.
  • Get others involved in the design of the meeting. Their participation in its design is the quickest route to its effectiveness.
  • Recurring meetings can take on a life of their own and stray from their original purpose. It’s a healthy activity to revisit “Why are we having this meeting?” regularly for such events.
  • Make the 7Ps visible during the meeting. These reference points can help focus and refocus a group as needed.
  • Have a plan and expect it to change. The 7Ps can give you a framework for designing a meeting, but they can’t run the meeting for you. The unexpected will happen, and as a leader you will need to adapt.

From Gamestorming