Browsing is the activity of engaging in a series of glimpses, each of which exposes the browser to objects of potential interest; depending on interest, the browser may or may not examine more closely one or more of the (physical or represented) objects; this examination, depending on interest, may or may not lead the browser to (physically or conceptually) acquire the object.
Posts Tagged ‘cognitiveResearch’
The Fogg Behavior Model shows that three elements must converge at the same moment for a behavior to occur: Motivation, Ability, and Trigger. When a behavior does not occur, at least one of those three elements is missing.
Behaviour change elements: motiviation, ability, trigger
Core Motivators: pleasure/pain; hope/fear; social acceptance/rejection
Simplicity factors: time; money; physical effort; brain cycles; social deviance; non-routine
Triggers: facilitator; spark; signal
The second observation made by Daniel Kahneman is the Peak End Rule. He found that people judge experiences based on their peak (an intense moment of the experience) and at their end, rather than a total flat average of the experience. The duration of the experience has no bearing on the experience over all.
- Physical safety
- Rest / sleep
- Peace of mind
- Sexual expression
- Mutual recognition
- To be heard / seen
- To be understood
- To be trusted
- Understanding others
Sense of self
- Mattering to myself
- Celebration of life
- Internal peace
Sources: Marshall Rosenberg; Manfred Max-Neef; Miki and Arnina Kashtan
From: Service Design: 250 essential methods by Robert A Curedale
Marshall Rosenberg‘s universal needs:
- Physical Well-being Needs—air, food, water, shelter, rest, movement, touch, sexual expression
- Autonomy Needs—choice of dreams / goals / values, choice in plans for fulfilling them
- Integrity Needs—authenticity, meaning, purpose, self worth, way to contribute to life
- Celebration Needs—honoring small successes and big successes, mourning losses of loved ones and dreams
- Interdependence / Connection Needs—acceptance, appreciation, consideration, community, emotional safety, honesty, love, respect, reassurance, support, trust, understanding
- Recreation / Play Needs—creativity, fun, laughter, relaxing activities
- Spiritual Needs—beauty, harmony, inspiration, order, peace
Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs:
- Physical Needs—air, food, water
- Safety Needs—shelter, safety from environment and other humans
- Belonging Needs—affiliation, connection with others—particular ones and community
- Esteem Needs—achievement, competence, self-esteem, recognition by others
- Cognitive Needs—understanding of a subject, exploration of an unknown
- Aesthetic Needs—symmetry, order, beauty
- Self-Actualization Needs—realization of one’s potential, comfortable acceptance of oneself and the world, identification of that which one most deeply hungers to do and action to be doing it
- Self-Transcendent Needs—connection to something beyond oneself, helping others find self-fulfillment or realization of their potential
OTHER STUDIES OF HUMAN NEEDS
Manfred Max-Neef, a Chilean economist who studied the problems in the Third World, devised a way to measure real poverty and wealth, in terms of how well a culture meets its citizens’ fundamental needs. He proposes a slightly different list of needs and discusses the qualities, things, actions, and settings that would accompany each. Max-Neef reflects that needs are basic across cultures, but strategies for meeting them vary. homepages.mtn.org/iasa/tgmaxneef.html
Here are three more models of how well a country is meeting the needs of its citizens. The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) has been around for 20 years. The Gross National Happiness (GNH) scale and the Happy Planet Index (HPI) are more recent efforts. Google these for more info.
Another group, The Search Institute, has focused on how well a community meets the needs of its youth. They list experiences (Forty Developmental Assets) that are helpful for children and have produced many studies to show that children who get more of these needs met have many fewer social and health problems. http://www.search-institute.org/
The Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument, with parallel to Myers-Briggs Interest Inventory, suggests there are four major clusters of needs and that our brains are hardwired to be focused on one or more clusters. Testing and training is offered for the business world. http://www.hbdi.com/
According to Karl Weick in ‘Sensemaking in Organizations’:
- Sensemaking is matter of identity: it is who we understand ourselves to be in relation to the world around us.
- Sensemaking is retrospective: we shape experience into meaningful patterns according to our memory of experience.
- How and what becomes sensible depends on our socialization: where we grew up in the world, how we were taught to be in the world, where we are located now in the world, the people with whom we are currently interacting.
- Sensemaking is a continuous flow; it is ongoing, because the world, our interactions with the world, and our understandings of the world are constantly changing. You might also think of sensemaking as perpetually emergent meaning and awareness.
- Sensemaking builds on extracted cues that we apprehend from sense and perception. Cognition is the meaningful internal embellishment of these cues. We articulate these embellishments through speaking and writing – the “what I say” part of Weick’s recipe. In doing so, we reify and reinforce cues and their meaning, and add to our repertoire of retrospective experience.
- Sensemaking is less a matter of accuracy and completeness than plausibility and sufficiency. We simply have neither the perceptual nor cognitive resources to know everything exhaustively, so we have to move forward as best as we can. Plausibility and sufficiency enable action-in-context.
Laura A. McNamara: Sensemaking in Organizations: Reflections on Karl Weick and Social Theory
“Behavioural economics” attempts to predict the way that humans behave when taking choices that have a measurable impact on them – for example, whether to put the washing machine on at 5pm when electricity is expensive, or at 11pm when it is cheap.
We can take insight from Behavioural Economics and other techniques for analysing human behaviour in order to create appropriate strategies, policies and environments that encourage the right outcomes in cities; but none of them can be relied on to give definitive solutions to any individual person or situation. They can inform decision-making, but are always associated with some degree of uncertainty. In some cases, the uncertainty will be so small as to be negligible, and the predictions can be treated as deterministic rules for achieving the desired outcome. But in many cases, the uncertainty will be so great that predictions can only be treated as general indications of what might happen; whilst individual actions and outcomes will vary greatly.
Responsive design (in the most “purist” sense of the term, that insists that the identically same functionality and content will be available on all devices) solves the capacity problem by chopping up the site into cells on a fluid grid and rearranging those cells on the smaller screen in a way that takes into account the relative priorities of the cells. Basically, it delivers the same content piece by piece through a narrower communication channel. As a result, all the content is available on smaller screens.
RALUCA BUDIU: http://www.nngroup.com/articles/scaling-user-interfaces/
The smaller screen size is the main reason that mobile content is twice as difficult than desktop content: because the mobile screen is so much smaller, users must rely on their working memory to keep around information that exists on the page but is not visible in front of their eyes.
RALUCA BUDIU: http://www.nngroup.com/articles/scaling-user-interfaces/
The total cognitive load, or amount of mental processing power needed to use your site, affects how easily users find content and complete tasks.
KATHRYN WHITENTON: http://www.nngroup.com/articles/minimize-cognitive-load/