Ove Arup: Design as a continuum

[About Ove Arup] “Design was at the top of his agenda, and he defined it as an all-embracing concept – a continuum of analysis, synthesis, production, construction and evaluation; an iterative activity where process and product are indivisible. He understood and voiced the reality that the nineteenth century concept of the singular designer/builder had been – and was continuing to be – eroded by the explosion in knowledge and the consequent inevitability of ever-increasing specialisation. He spoke endlessly about the need to integrate all these skills into a unified whole which satisfied the Vitruvian trio of ‘Commodity’, ‘Firmness’, and ‘Delight’.”

Lack Zunz in ‘We like what you did’, V&A Magazine, Issue No 40, Summer 2016, p.48

Design Thinking

Design Thinking is a people centered way of solving difficult problems. It follows a collaborative, team based, cross-disciplinary process. It uses a toolkit of methods and can be applied by anyone from the most seasoned corporate designers and executives to school children.

Design Thinking is an approach that seeks practical and innovative solutions to problems. It can be used to develop products, services, experiences, and strategy. It is an approach that allows designers to go beyond focusing on improving the appearance of things to provide a framework for solving complex problems. Design Thinking combines empathy for people and their context with tools to discover insight. It drives business value. (…) Design Thinkers observe users and their physical environments, interact with them with prototypes, and feed the outcomes of their experiences back into the design.


Design Thinking can be applied throughout the design process:

  1. Define intent
  2. Know context
  3. Know users
  4. Frame insights
  5. Explore concepts
  6. Make plans
  7. Deliver offering

From: Service Design: 250 essential methods by Robert A Curedale


A pixel (or picture element) is a single point in a raster image. The pixel is the smallest addressable screen element, it is the smallest unit of picture which can be controlled. Each Pixel has its address. The address of a pixel corresponds to its coordinate. Pixels are normally arranged in a 2-dimensional grid, and are often represented using dots or squares. Each pixel is a sample of an original image, where more samples typically provide more-accurate representations of the original.

Lucas Cobb Design

Basic design directions

Divergence: the expansion or spreading out of something from a central point or theme in different directions; aka branching out
Convergence: the contraction of two or more entities towards a central point or common ground
Transformation: substantial qualitative change in appearance/character and strategy

Ambrose/Harris 2010: p.50

Dieter Rams’ design principles

Dieter Rams (Industrial Designer *1932): 10 design principles

  1. Good design is innovative.
  2. Good design makes a product useful.
  3. Good design is aesthetic.
  4. Good design makes a product understandable.
  5. Good design is unobtrusive.
  6. Good design is honest.
  7. Good design is long-lasting.
  8. Good design is thorough down to the last detail.
  9. Good design is environmentally friendly.
  10. Good design is as little design as possible.

From http://designmuseum.org/design/dieter-rams

Perception Matrix (Emotional Responses)

Bright * * * * * Subdued
Professional * * * * * Domestic
Light * * * * * Heavy
Plain * * * * * Pretty
Dramatic * * * * * Understated
Simple * * * * * Complex
Contemporary * * * * * Traditional
Sophisticated * * * * * Childish
Warm * * * * * Cold
Expressive * * * * * Restrained
Humorous * * * * * Serious
Open * * * * * Closed
Surprising * * * * * Expected
Colourful * * * * * Monotone
Friendly * * * * * Independent