Posts Tagged ‘Norman’

Three levels of information processing

June 12, 2008

Three levels of processing:

  1. Visceral
  2. Behavioral
  3. Reflective

“The visceral level is fast: it makes rapid judgments of what is good or bad, safe or dangerous, and sends appropriate signals to the muscles (the motor system) and alerts the rest of the brain. This is the start of affective processing. These are biologically determined and can be inhibited or enhanced through control signals from above. The behavioral level is the site of most human behavior. Its actions can be enhanced or inhibited by the reflective layer and, in turn, it can enhance or inhibit the visceral layer. The highest layer is that of reflective thought. Note that it does not have direct access either to sensory input or to the control of behavior. Instead it watches over, reflects upon, and tries to bias the behavioral level.”

From: Norman, Donald (2004), Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things, San Francisco: Basic Books, p.3

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The six disciplines of User Experience

June 10, 2008

“User experience (UE) is not a single discipline. At least six skills are needed, and they are almost never found in the same person. There are few places that provide education in this area. In any event, the six skill sets cut across traditional academic disciplines. Here is what it takes:

• Field studies
• Behavioral designers
• Model builders and rapid prototypers
• User testers
• Graphical and industrial designers
• Technical writers

From: Norman, Don (1999), The Invisible Computer: Why Good Products can fail, The Personal Computer Is So Complex and Information Appliances Are The Solution, New York: Harper Collins, p.189

Conceptual model (Norman)

June 10, 2008

“To summarize, a conceptual model is a story. It doesn’t have to discuss the actual mechanisms of the operation. But it does have to pull the actions together into a coherent whole that allows the user to feel in control, to feel there is a reason for the way things are structured, to feel that, when necessary, it’s possible to invent special variations to get out of trouble and, in general, feel mastery over the device.”

From: Norman, Don (1999), The Invisible Computer: Why Good Products can fail, The Personal Computer Is So Complex and Information Appliances Are The Solution, New York: Harper Collins, p.179

Isomorphic correspondence

June 6, 2008

Isomorphic correspondence is similar to what Norman calls affordances

“the relationship between the appearance of a visual form and a
comparable human behaviour.”

From: Wroblewski, Luke (2002), Site-Seeing: A Visual Approach to Web-Usability, New York: Hungry Minds, p.137

Don Norman’s design principles

June 5, 2008

Referring to Don Norman’s ‘Design of Everyday Things’

  1. Visibility – (…) The more visible functions are, the more likely users will be able to know what to do next. In contrast, when functions are “out of sight,” it makes them more difficult to find and know how to use. (…)
  2. Feedback – (…) Feedback is about sending back information about what action has been done and what has been accomplished, allowing the person to continue with the activity. Various kinds of feedback are available for interaction design-audio, tactile, verbal, and combinations of these. (…)
  3. Constraints – The design concept of constraining refers to determining ways of restricting the kind of user interaction that can take place at a given moment. There are various ways this can be achieved. (…)
  4. Mapping – This refers to the relationship between controls and their effects in the world. Nearly all artifacts need some kind of mapping between controls and effects, whether it is a flashlight, car, power plant, or cockpit. An example of a good mapping between control and effect is the up and down arrows used to represent the up and down movement of the cursor, respectively, on a computer keyboard. (…)
  5. Consistency – This refers to designing interfaces to have similar operations and use similar elements for achieving similar tasks. In particular, a consistent interface is one that follows rules, such as using the same operation to select all objects. For example, a consistent operation is using the same input action to highlight any graphical object at the interface, such as always clicking the left mouse button. Inconsistent interfaces, on the other hand, allow exceptions to a rule. (…)
  6. Affordance – is a term used to refer to an attribute of an object that allows people to know how to use it. For example, a mouse button invites pushing (in so doing acting clicking) by the way it is physically constrained in its plastic shell. At a very simple level, to afford means “to give a clue” (Norman, 1988). When the affordances of a physical object are perceptually obvious it is easy to know how to interact with it. (…)

From: Preece, J., Rogers, Y., Sharp, H. (2002), Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction, New York: Wiley, p.21

Don Norman’s design principles

June 5, 2008

Referring to Don Norman’s ‘Design of Everyday Things’

  1. Visibility – (…) The more visible functions are, the more likely users will be able to ow what to do next. In contrast, when functions are “out of sight,” it makes them more difficult to find and know how to use. (…)
  2. Feedback – (…) Feedback is about sending back information about what action has been done and what has been accomplished, allowing the person to continue with the activity. Various kinds of feedback are available for interaction design-audio, tactile, verLaI, and combinations of these. (…)
  3. Constraints – The design concept of constraining refers to determining ways of restricting the kind of user interaction that can take place at a given moment. There are various ways this can be achieved. (…)
  4. Mapping – This refers to the relationship between controls and their effects in the world. Nearly all artifacts need some kind of mapping between controls and effects, whether it is a flashlight, car, power plant, or cockpit. An example of a good mapping between control and effect is the up and down arrows used to represent the up and down movement of the cursor, respectively, on a computer keyboard. (…)
  5. Consistency – This refers to designing interfaces to have similar operations and use similar elements for achieving similar tasks. In particular, a consistent interface is one that follows rules, such as using the same operation to select all objects. For example, a consistent operation is using the same input action to highlight any graphical object at the interface, such as always clicking the left mouse button. Inconsistent interfaces, on the other hand, allow exceptions to a rule. (…)
  6. Affordance – is a term used to refer to an attribute of an object that allows people to know how to use it. For example, a mouse button invites pushing (in so doing acting clicking) by the way it is physically constrained in its plastic shell. At a very nple level, to afford means “to give a clue” (Norman, 1988). When the affordances of a physical object are perceptually obvious it is easy to know how to intert with it. (…)

From: Preece, J., Rogers, Y., Sharp, H. (2002), Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction, New York: Wiley, p.21