Disability is …

Disability is a shortcoming of designed environments.

… deisgning for ability differences …

August de los Reyes, Pinterest head of design and research

Disability = mismatch between abilities and the world around you

“As he began to see it, disability wasn’t a limitation of his, but rather a mismatch between his own abilities and the world around him. Disability was a design problem.”

“Disability is an engine of innovation simply because no matter what their limitations, humans have such a relentless drive to communicate that they’ll invent new ways to do so, in spite of everything.”

https://www.fastcodesign.com/3054927/the-big-idea/microsofts-inspiring-bet-on-a-radical-new-type-of-design-thinking

 

What is the Web?

  • The web is made of code and must be designed, there- fore designing with code is working with the right materials. This is the best course of action.
  • Content — what we write or otherwise express via the web — must be subject to design thinking and, in fact, all other design decisions should facilitate that.
  • Web pages are not immutable artifacts. They should be tolerant of changing, dynamic content. This content should be managed in terms of discrete components which can be reused as agreed patterns.
  • The potential audience of a website or app is anyone hu- man. Inclusivity of ability, preference and circumstance is paramount. Where people differ — and they always do — inclusive interfaces are robust interfaces.

Heydon Pickering: Inclusive Design Patterns – Coding Accessibility into Web Design, p.11

 

AccessibilityOz uses the following design principles when analysing a current web site:

  • Matching experience and meeting expectation
  • Metaphor
  • Consistency – internal and external
  • Functional minimalism
  • Cognitive load
  • Engagement
  • Memory load
  • Functional layering
  • Visibility
  • Feedback and orientation
  • Direct manipulation
  • Mapping
  • Control, trust, and explorability
  • Error prevention, detection and recovery
  • Mousing and Fitt’s law
  • Affordance
  • Hierarchy of control
  • Spatial memory
  • Visual hierarchy
  • Natural reading order
  • Grouping
  • Visual weight
  • Visual balance
  • Visual minimalism
  • Visual rhythm and scanability
  • Aesthetics

http://www.accessibilityoz.com/services/accessible-user-experience/

Types of impairments

  • Visual impairment – assistive technologies such as screen reading software and screen magnifiers are the most common tools for this audience. Screen readers work effectively only if there are text alternatives to imagery, charts and animation, and the page has been properly coded using structural mark-up. Screen magnifiers also rely on well-structured page design.
  • Hearing impairment – these users rely on text captioning to understand videos or audio files.
  • Motor impairments – people with limited muscle control often find the mouse or keyboard difficult to use. These users often use speech recognition systems that allow them to speak commands to their computer.
  • Cognitive disability – people with reading difficulties, such as dyslexia, and limited mental agility need web pages that are written in straightforward language and are easy to scan. Following these principles and best practice provides benefits for everyone who uses the website.
  • Selective disturbance – people prone to epileptic seizures, and those with visual impairments, may be disturbed by flickering and flashing text or images.